Fiber-optic technologies—distributed temperature sensing and distributed acoustic sensing—have been experiencing an ever-increasing number of applications in the oil and gas industry as monitoring systems.
Since the 1980s, many technical works have focused on improving the ability to detect hydrocarbons inside the riser and safely remove them from the system. This trend gained extra momentum with the advent of systems such as riser-gas handlers and managed-pressure drilling.
One of the more important aspects of well integrity during drilling operations is early kick detection. Recently, new technologies and re-search have been applied or developed to improve the kick-detection systems and to overcome some of the difficulties.
Statistics on well-integrity incidents are difficult to find in the literature. There are some examples of kick and blowout events, but normally they are scarce and focus on the number of incidents and their root causes.