This paper outlines issues to be resolved during facility design and provides guidelines, calculations, and examples for sand-handling steps to be implemented after separation.
Permian Basin oil wells produce a lot of water. Much of it is injected into disposal zones above and below the basin’s primary oil- and gas-producing zone. When water is injected into these disposal zones, the pressure increases, mainly because no fluid is concurrently removed. Is this increase in pressure a concern? The data would suggest yes.
BKV Corp. has combined bullhead and liner refracturing methods to create an approach called the hybrid expandable liner system.

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