Fracturing/pressure pumping

When Occidental Resources switched to bigger fracture designs to produce more oil, it produced more water as well. Based on research done since, they cannot have one without the other, and at the oil prices recently seen, that’s OK.
The authors of this paper demonstrate that future produced-water management and scale-mineral control may need to consider the sequential exposure effect of steel, cement, and shale on fluid chemistry and mineral precipitation.
Pennsylvania children living near unconventional oil and gas developments at birth were two to three times more likely to be diagnosed with leukemia between the ages of 2 and 7 than those who did not live near this oil and gas activity, after accounting for other factors that could influence cancer risk, a novel study from the Yale School of Public Health finds.

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