Enhanced recovery

Strategy Targets Risk Management for CO2 Waterless Fracturing

In this paper, a complete safety-management approach and a contingency plan are developed for carbon dioxide waterless fracturing operations.

Overall process work flow of CO2 waterless fracturing.
Fig. 1—Overall process work flow of CO2 waterless fracturing.

Given shortages and uneven distribution of water resources in China, efforts must be made to develop waterless fracturing techniques. The fluid experiences high pressures and low temperatures during carbon dioxide (CO2) waterless fracturing operations, which can lead to accidents and environmental pollution. In the complete paper, a safety-management approach and a contingency plan for such operations are developed. At the time of writing, this CO2 waterless fracturing methodology has been completed successfully more than 20 times.

Surface Process Work Flow of CO2 Waterless Fracturing

The basic process of a CO2 waterless fracturing operation is shown in Fig.

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