Reservoir simulation

3D Integrated Model-Driven Work Flow Developed for Shale Hydraulic Fracturing

The authors of this paper describe a model-driven work flow developed for hydraulic fracturing design and execution that could be a resource for other shale plays with similar challenges worldwide.

Well depths, spacing, and layout of Pad X. TVD = true vertical depth.
Fig. 1—Well depths, spacing, and layout of Pad X. TVD = true vertical depth.

The Longmaxi shale gas play in China is unique because of multiple tectonic deformations in its geological history. While its hydraulic fracturing design has matured after a decade-long evolution, the success of every well cannot be ensured without considering heterogeneity. To address these challenges, a multidisciplinary team was formed to work on a pad; through the team’s efforts, designed proppant volume achieved zero casing deformations, fewer screenouts, and weaker fracture hits. The key to effective mitigation was continuous 3D geological and geomechanical (G&G) modeling through ongoing iterations with field data.


The Longmaxi shale play in the Sichuan Basin is approximately 20 000 km2 and is buried between 2000 and 4500 m.

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