Unconventional/complex reservoirs

Study Examines Capacitance/Resistance Modeling for Waterflooding

This study explores pitfalls experienced when using capacitance/resistance modeling as a plug-and-play technique for waterflood optimization and discusses workarounds and mitigations to improve its reliability.

Location of pseudo aquifer injectors
Location of pseudo aquifer injectors used for one the clastic reservoirs in this study.

Popular implementation of capacitance/resistance modeling (CRM) uses only production or injection data as input and makes simplifying assumptions that pressure maintenance and injection are the primary drivers of production. While these assumptions make CRM a quick plug-and-play technique that can be replicated easily between assets, they also lead to major pitfalls because these assumptions are often invalid. The complete paper explores these pitfalls and discusses workarounds and mitigations to improve the reliability of CRM.


The study focuses on three large onshore mature reservoirs currently in the waterflood phase. These reservoirs each have over 100 active producers and 20–30 active injectors, most of which are deviated or vertical, with the newer infill wells being predominantly horizontal.

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